Rachelle J. Canter, Ph.D.
What can we learn from successful executives about how to climb the
Studies of high potential executives conducted by the
Center for Creative Leadership in the 1980s and 1990s provide some
interesting findings. They found that the success factors are the
same for men and women, although the 1980s studies found that in order to
succeed at the highest levels, women were expected to have more strengths,
and fewer faults, than male counterparts.
Successful executives have predictable strengths: the ability to work well
with others, an outstanding track record, intelligence, and strong
communication skills. But the most frequently listed
characteristic may surprise you. Can you guess what's at the top of
the list? Adaptability.
Adaptability: the Essential Ingredient
The ability to change and develop in times of transition is a critical
asset for success in a rapidly changing work environment.
Transitions can take varied forms, such as changes in jobs, career paths,
cultures, or organizations. Inflexibility has never been a
professional asset, but in a changing world, it can be a fatal flaw.
Adaptability can be observed in small ways and large. A childhood friend
of mine decided to switch jobs and cities (though not employers) with
greater ease than I was able to change hairdressers (in my self-defense,
the last time I went to someone new I ended up looking like Anita Bryant's
double with a bubble haircut from the 1960s). Still, the amount of
time I spent contemplating the proposed change was time that could have
been devoted more fruitfully to business development or program design.
Luckily, my clients don't evaluate me on hairstyle adaptability. But
adaptability colors many professional judgments and has important effects
on career success.
Emotional Intelligence is More Important than Brainpower
Another hidden set of requirements for success have to do with so-called
"soft" or interpersonal skills. What we have long suspected has
now been verified: It's not what you know, It's what you understand. Many
of the critical skills for success are interpersonal. Across jobs and
industries, skills related to understanding and control of emotions
(emotional intelligence, or EQ for short) are twice as important to
success as intelligence and technical expertise combined! In highly
intellectual and demanding professions like law, intelligence is just an
entrance requirement. Superior performance and leadership depend almost
exclusively on emotional intelligence abilities.
As defined by Daniel Goleman in his two best-selling books, there are five
dimensions of emotional intelligence. Three are personal competencies:
knowing and managing your feelings, and motivating yourself. The other two
are social competencies, namely empathy and social skills.
The impact of EQ is observable even on the grade school playground!
Goleman describes how the emotionally intelligent child is adept at
integrating into an existing group, by observing the group and slowly,
carefully joining the interaction. The less skilled child barges into the
group and attempts to take over and is rebuffed for these clumsy
We see the differences in emotional intelligence at play in our work
lives: the colleague who lashes out at others without the ability to
control his anger, and sometimes, without even consciousness of the
negative impact he has on others; the manager who imposes deadlines and
tasks with greater severity when she does not get the desired results
without understanding the reactions of her subordinates; the partner
who is puzzled by former clients who choose to work with other lawyers
because she cannot see how her sense of intellectual superiority is
communicated to clients in many subtle but perceptible condescending ways;
the associate so eager to prove how smart he is that he cannot listen to
anyone else. Do you know anyone who exhibits these behaviors?
Women Are Not Better than Men
Lest you think that women have the edge in EQ, evidence shows that women
and men are equally as intelligent emotionally, but are strong in
different areas: women score higher than men on measures of empathy and
social skills, while men score higher on stress tolerance and
self-confidence. Research presented in a leading psychology journal shows
just how tenuous self-confidence can be. When asked to participate in an
obviously ludicrous experiment of completing a math test while trying on a
bathing suit, women's performance was significantly poorer while men's
performance was unimpaired. If an intentionally silly experiment can
reduce self-confidence, what about the real workplace traumas?
Moving Up Depends on Interpersonal Skills More than Technical Expertise
Not only are interpersonal skills more important than technical skills and
cognitive intelligence, as an individual moves up in an organization
(corporation or law firm), success depends increasingly on interpersonal
skills and correspondingly less on technical skills. Promotions
increasingly lead to management roles rather than independent contributor
roles, where lack of sociability or problems with relationships are less
Is Emotional Intelligence Inherited or Learned?
The good news about emotional intelligence is that it can be learned. The
bad news is that like any change in behavior, it is not susceptible to
one-shot training. Changing ingrained patterns of behavior is a process
which requires individual attention, ongoing performance feedback and
coaching, clear and realistic goals, rewards and accountability for change
-- plus lots of practice -- to turn good intentions into emotionally
intelligent behavior. Psychologists and executive coaches can design
individual and group programs to teach emotional intelligence competencies
such as assertiveness skills or stress-management techniques for women or
listening skills for men.
How Do You Measure Up?
Success requires many things: intelligence, high performance, good working
relationships are obvious requirements. Adaptability to change and
feedback and emotional intelligence are not so obvious but equally
important. How do you measure up? How would you like yourself to grow and
change? Can you do it yourself or would it be smart to get some help?
You're worth it.
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